• • • Network topology is the arrangement of the various elements (,, etc.) of a communication network. Network topology is the structure of a network and may be depicted physically or logically. Physical topology is the placement of the various components of a network, including device location and cable installation, while illustrates how data flows within a network.
Distances between nodes, physical interconnections,, or signal types may differ between two networks, yet their topologies may be identical. An example is a (). Any given node in the LAN has one or more physical links to other devices in the network; graphically mapping these links results in a geometric shape that can be used to describe the physical topology of the network. Conversely, mapping the between the components determines the logical topology of the network. Diagram of different network topologies. Two basic categories of network topologies exist, physical topologies and. The cabling layout used to link devices is the physical topology of the network.
This refers to the layout of, the locations of nodes, and the links between the nodes and the cabling. The physical topology of a network is determined by the capabilities of the network access devices and media, the level of control or fault tolerance desired, and the cost associated with cabling or telecommunications circuits. In contrast, logical topology is the way that the signals act on the network media, or the way that the data passes through the network from one device to the next without regard to the physical interconnection of the devices. A network's logical topology is not necessarily the same as its physical topology. For example, the original using was a logical bus topology carried on a physical star topology. Is a logical ring topology, but is wired as a physical star from the. Logical topologies are often closely associated with methods and protocols.
Some networks are able to dynamically change their logical topology through configuration changes to their and switches. Further information: The transmission media (often referred to in the literature as the physical media) used to link devices to form a computer network include (,,, ), (), and (). In the, these are defined at layers 1 and 2 — the physical layer and the data link layer. A widely adopted family of transmission media used in local area network () technology is collectively known as. The media and protocol standards that enable communication between networked devices over Ethernet are defined. Ethernet transmits data over both copper and fiber cables.
Wireless LAN standards (e.g. Those defined by ) use, or others use signals as a transmission medium. Uses a building's power cabling to transmit data. Wired technologies [ ].
Are used to transmit light from one computer/network node to another The orders of the following wired technologies are, roughly, from slowest to fastest transmission speed. • is widely used for cable television systems, office buildings, and other work-sites for local area networks. The cables consist of copper or aluminum wire surrounded by an insulating layer (typically a flexible material with a high dielectric constant), which itself is surrounded by a conductive layer. The insulation helps minimize interference and distortion. Transmission speed ranges from 200 million bits per second to more than 500 million bits per second.
• technology uses existing (, phone lines and ) to create a high-speed (up to 1 Gigabit/s) local area network • wire is the most widely used medium for all telecommunication. Twisted-pair cabling consist of copper wires that are twisted into pairs. Ordinary telephone wires consist of two insulated copper wires twisted into pairs. Computer network cabling (wired as defined by ) consists of 4 pairs of copper cabling that can be utilized for both voice and data transmission. The use of two wires twisted together helps to reduce and. The transmission speed ranges from 2 million bits per second to 10 billion bits per second.
Twisted pair cabling comes in two forms: unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP). Each form comes in several category ratings, designed for use in various scenarios. 2007 map showing submarine optical fiber telecommunication cables around the world. • An is a glass fiber. It carries pulses of light that represent data. Some advantages of optical fibers over metal wires are very low transmission loss and immunity from electrical interference.
Optical fibers can simultaneously carry multiple wavelengths of light, which greatly increases the rate that data can be sent, and helps enable data rates of up to trillions of bits per second. Optic fibers can be used for long runs of cable carrying very high data rates, and are used for to interconnect continents.
Price is a main factor distinguishing wired- and wireless-technology options in a business. Wireless options command a price premium that can make purchasing wired computers, printers and other devices a financial benefit. Before making the decision to purchase hard-wired technology products, a review of the restrictions and limitations of the selections is necessary. Business and employee needs may override any cost considerations.
Figure 15.2 Various network topologies. Types of Networks. Wide-area network (WAN) A network that connects two or more local-area networks over a potentially large geographic distance. Often one particular node on a LAN is set up to serve as a gateway to handle all communication going between that LAN. Network बनाने से पहले यह Decide करना पड़ता है की हम अपने सभी Computer को कैसे एक दुसरे से जोड़ेंगे और जिस तरह से हम इन Computer को जोड़ेंगे इस.
Wireless technologies [ ]. Main article: • Terrestrial – Terrestrial microwave communication uses Earth-based transmitters and receivers resembling satellite dishes.
Terrestrial microwaves are in the low gigahertz range, which limits all communications to line-of-sight. Relay stations are spaced approximately 48 km (30 mi) apart. • Communications – Satellites communicate via microwave radio waves, which are not deflected by the Earth's atmosphere.
The satellites are stationed in space, typically in geosynchronous orbit 35,400 km (22,000 mi) above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, data, and TV signals. • and PCS systems use several radio communications technologies.
The systems divide the region covered into multiple geographic areas. Each area has a low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one area to the next area. • Radio and technologies – Wireless local area networks use a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular and a low-frequency radio technology. Wireless LANs use spread spectrum technology to enable communication between multiple devices in a limited area. Defines a common flavor of open-standards wireless radio-wave technology known as. • uses visible or invisible light for communications.
In most cases, is used, which limits the physical positioning of communicating devices. Exotic technologies [ ] There have been various attempts at transporting data over exotic media: • was a humorous April fool's, issued as. It was implemented in real life in 2001.
• Extending the Internet to interplanetary dimensions via radio waves, the. Both cases have a large, which gives slow two-way communication, but doesn't prevent sending large amounts of information.
An network interface in the form of an accessory card. A lot of network interfaces are built-in. A (NIC) is that provides a computer with the ability to access the transmission media, and has the ability to process low-level network information. For example, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry.
The NIC responds to traffic addressed to a for either the NIC or the computer as a whole. In networks, each network interface controller has a unique (MAC) address—usually stored in the controller's permanent memory. To avoid address conflicts between network devices, the (IEEE) maintains and administers MAC address uniqueness. The size of an Ethernet MAC address is six. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce.
Repeaters and hubs [ ] A is an device that receives a network, cleans it of unnecessary noise and regenerates it. The signal is at a higher power level, or to the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances without degradation. In most twisted pair Ethernet configurations, repeaters are required for cable that runs longer than 100 meters.
With fiber optics, repeaters can be tens or even hundreds of kilometers apart. A repeater with multiple ports is known as an. Repeaters work on the physical layer of the OSI model. Repeaters require a small amount of time to regenerate the signal. This can cause a that affects network performance and may affect proper function. As a result, many network architectures limit the number of repeaters that can be used in a row, e.g., the Ethernet. Hubs and repeaters in LANs have been mostly obsoleted by modern.
Bridges [ ] A connects and filters traffic between two at the (layer 2) of the to form a single network. This breaks the network's collision domain but maintains a unified broadcast domain. Network segmentation breaks down a large, congested network into an aggregation of smaller, more efficient networks. Bridges come in three basic types: • Local bridges: Directly connect LANs • Remote bridges: Can be used to create a wide area network (WAN) link between LANs. Remote bridges, where the connecting link is slower than the end networks, largely have been replaced with routers. • Wireless bridges: Can be used to join LANs or connect remote devices to LANs. Switches [ ] A is a device that forwards and filters () between based on the destination MAC address in each frame.
A switch is distinct from a hub in that it only forwards the frames to the physical ports involved in the communication rather than all ports connected. It can be thought of as a multi-port bridge.
It learns to associate physical ports to MAC addresses by examining the source addresses of received frames. If an unknown destination is targeted, the switch broadcasts to all ports but the source. Switches normally have numerous ports, facilitating a star topology for devices, and cascading additional switches. Are capable of routing based on layer 3 addressing or additional logical levels.
The term switch is often used loosely to include devices such as routers and bridges, as well as devices that may distribute traffic based on load or based on application content (e.g., a Web identifier). A typical home or small office router showing the telephone line and network cable connections A is an device that forwards between networks by processing the routing information included in the packet or datagram (Internet protocol information from layer 3).
The routing information is often processed in conjunction with the routing table (or forwarding table). A router uses its routing table to determine where to forward packets. A destination in a routing table can include a 'null' interface, also known as the 'black hole' interface because data can go into it, however, no further processing is done for said data, i.e. The packets are dropped. Modems [ ] (MOdulator-DEModulator) are used to connect network nodes via wire not originally designed for digital network traffic, or for wireless. To do this one or more are by the digital signal to produce an that can be tailored to give the required properties for transmission.
Modems are commonly used for telephone lines, using a technology. Firewalls [ ] A is a network device for controlling network security and access rules. Firewalls are typically configured to reject access requests from unrecognized sources while allowing actions from recognized ones. The vital role firewalls play in network security grows in parallel with the constant increase in. Classification [ ] The study of network topology recognizes eight basic topologies: point-to-point, bus, star, ring or circular, mesh, tree, hybrid, or daisy chain. Point-to-point [ ].
Main article: The simplest topology with a dedicated link between two endpoints. Easiest to understand, of the variations of point-to-point topology, is a point-to-point that appears, to the user, to be permanently associated with the two endpoints. A child's is one example of a physical dedicated channel. Using or technologies, a point-to-point circuit can be set up dynamically and dropped when no longer needed. Switched point-to-point topologies are the basic model of conventional. The value of a permanent point-to-point network is unimpeded communications between the two endpoints.
The value of an on-demand point-to-point connection is proportional to the number of potential pairs of subscribers and has been expressed as. Main article: In local area networks where bus topology is used, each node is connected to a single cable, by the help of interface connectors. This central cable is the backbone of the network and is known as the bus (thus the name). A signal from the source travels in both directions to all machines connected on the bus cable until it finds the intended recipient. If the machine address does not match the intended address for the data, the machine ignores the data. Alternatively, if the data matches the machine address, the data is accepted.
Because the bus topology consists of only one wire, it is rather inexpensive to implement when compared to other topologies. However, the low cost of implementing the technology is offset by the high cost of managing the network. Additionally, because only one cable is utilized, it can be the. In this topology data being transferred may be accessed by any.
Linear bus [ ] The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network that are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints (this is the 'bus', which is also commonly referred to as the, or ) – all that is in between nodes in the network is transmitted over this common transmission medium and is able to be by all nodes in the network simultaneously. Note: When the electrical signal reaches the end of the bus, the signal is reflected back down the line, causing unwanted interference. As a solution, the two endpoints of the bus are normally terminated with a device called a that prevents this reflection. Distributed bus [ ] The type of network topology in which all of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has more than two endpoints that are created by adding branches to the main section of the transmission medium – the physical distributed bus topology functions in exactly the same fashion as the physical linear bus topology (i.e., all nodes share a common transmission medium). Star network topology In local area networks with a star topology, each network host is connected to a central hub with a point-to-point connection. So it can be said that every computer is indirectly connected to every other node with the help of the hub. In Star topology, every node (computer workstation or any other peripheral) is connected to a central node called hub, router or switch.
The switch is the server and the peripherals are the clients. The network does not necessarily have to resemble a star to be classified as a star network, but all of the nodes on the network must be connected to one central device.
All traffic that traverses the network passes through the central hub. The hub acts as a. The star topology is considered the easiest topology to design and implement. An advantage of the star topology is the simplicity of adding additional nodes.
The primary disadvantage of the star topology is that the hub represents a single point of failure. Since all peripheral communication must flow through the central hub, the aggregate central bandwidth forms a network bottleneck for large clusters. Extended star [ ] A type of network topology in which a network that is based upon the physical star topology has one or more repeaters between the central node and the peripheral or 'spoke' nodes, the repeaters being used to extend the maximum transmission distance of the point-to-point links between the central node and the nodes beyond that which is supported by the transmitter power of the central node or beyond that which is supported by the standard upon which the physical layer of the physical star network is based. If the repeaters in a network that is based upon the physical extended star topology are replaced with hubs or switches, then a hybrid network topology is created that is referred to as a physical hierarchical star topology, although some texts make no distinction between the two topologies. Distributed Star [ ] A type of network topology that is composed of individual networks that are based upon the physical star topology connected in a linear fashion – i.e., 'daisy-chained' – with no central or top level connection point (e.g. Chief Keef Finally Rich Deluxe Edition Download Free. , two or more 'stacked' hubs, along with their associated star connected nodes or 'spokes'). Ring network topology A ring topology is a in a closed loop. Data travels around the ring in one direction.
When one node sends data to another, the data passes through each intermediate node on the ring until it reaches its destination. The intermediate nodes repeat (re transmit) the data to keep the signal strong. Every node is a peer; there is no hierarchical relationship of clients and servers. If one node is unable to re transmit data, it severs communication between the nodes before and after it in the bus. Advantages: • When the load on the network increases, its performance is better than bus topology. • There is no need of network server to control the connectivity between workstations. Disadvantages: • Aggregate network bandwidth is bottlenecked by the weakest link between two nodes.
Partially connected mesh topology In a partially connected network, certain nodes are connected to exactly one other node; but some nodes are connected to two or more other nodes with a point-to-point link. This makes it possible to make use of some of the redundancy of mesh topology that is physically fully connected, without the expense and complexity required for a connection between every node in the network. Hybrid [ ] Hybrid networks combine two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies (e.g., bus, star, ring, etc.). For example, a (or star-bus network) is a hybrid topology in which are interconnected via. However, a tree network connected to another tree network is still topologically a tree network, not a distinct network type. A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected.
A star-ring network consists of two or more ring networks connected using a (MAU) as a centralized hub. Snowflake topology is a star network of star networks.
[ ] Two other hybrid network types are hybrid mesh and hierarchical star. Daisy chain [ ] Except for star-based networks, the easiest way to add more computers into a network is by, or connecting each computer in series to the next. If a message is intended for a computer partway down the line, each system bounces it along in sequence until it reaches the destination. A daisy-chained network can take two basic forms: linear and ring. • A puts a two-way link between one computer and the next. However, this was expensive in the early days of computing, since each computer (except for the ones at each end) required two receivers and two transmitters.
• By connecting the computers at each end, a can be formed. An advantage of the ring is that the number of transmitters and receivers can be cut in half, since a message will eventually loop all of the way around.
When a sends a message, the message is processed by each computer in the ring. If the ring breaks at a particular link then the transmission can be sent via the reverse path thereby ensuring that all nodes are always connected in the case of a single failure. Centralization [ ] The reduces the probability of a network failure by connecting all of the peripheral nodes (computers, etc.) to a central node. When the physical star topology is applied to a logical bus network such as, this central node (traditionally a hub) rebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network, sometimes including the originating node. All nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to, and receiving from, the central node only. The of a linking any peripheral node to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral node from all others, but the remaining peripheral nodes will be unaffected.
However, the disadvantage is that the failure of the central node will cause the failure of all of the peripheral nodes. If the central node is passive, the originating node must be able to tolerate the reception of an of its own transmission, delayed by the two-way (i.e. To and from the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node.
An active star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echo-related problems. Hierarchical topology) can be viewed as a collection of star networks arranged in a.
This has individual peripheral nodes (e.g. Leaves) which are required to transmit to and receive from one other node only and are not required to act as repeaters or regenerators. Unlike the star network, the functionality of the central node may be distributed. As in the conventional star network, individual nodes may thus still be isolated from the network by a single-point failure of a transmission path to the node. If a link connecting a leaf fails, that leaf is isolated; if a connection to a non-leaf node fails, an entire section of the network becomes isolated from the rest. To alleviate the amount of network traffic that comes from broadcasting all signals to all nodes, more advanced central nodes were developed that are able to keep track of the identities of the nodes that are connected to the network.
These will 'learn' the layout of the network by 'listening' on each port during normal data transmission, examining the and recording the address/identifier of each connected node and which port it is connected to in a held in memory. This lookup table then allows future transmissions to be forwarded to the intended destination only.
Decentralization [ ] In a partially connected mesh topology, there are at least two nodes with two or more paths between them to provide redundant paths in case the link providing one of the paths fails. Decentralization is often used to compensate for the single-point-failure disadvantage that is present when using a single device as a central node (e.g., in star and tree networks). A special kind of mesh, limiting the number of hops between two nodes, is a. The number of arbitrary forks in mesh networks makes them more difficult to design and implement, but their decentralized nature makes them very useful.
In 2012 the (IEEE) published the protocol to ease configuration tasks and allows all paths to be active which increases bandwidth and redundancy between all devices. This is similar in some ways to a, where a linear or ring topology is used to connect systems in multiple directions. A multidimensional ring has a topology, for instance. A fully connected network, complete topology, or full mesh topology is a network topology in which there is a direct link between all pairs of nodes.
In a fully connected network with n nodes, there are n(n-1)/2 direct links. Networks designed with this topology are usually very expensive to set up, but provide a high degree of reliability due to the multiple paths for data that are provided by the large number of redundant links between nodes. This topology is mostly seen in applications. See also [ ]. • ^ Groth, David; Toby Skandier (2005). Network+ Study Guide, Fourth Edition.
• ATIS committee PRQC.. ATIS Telecom Glossary 2007.. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
• Chiang, Mung; Yang, Michael (2004). 42nd Allerton Conference. • ^ Inc, S., (2002).
Networking Complete. Third Edition. San Francisco: Sybex •, The Disadvantages of Wired Technology, Laura Acevedo, Demand Media.
Retrieved 2014-03-01. Hooke (September 2000), (PDF), Third Annual International Symposium on Advanced Radio Technologies, archived from (PDF) on 2012-01-13, retrieved 2011-11-12 •. Retrieved April 8, 2008. Network Design Basics for Cabling Professionals. McGraw-Hill Professional.. • ^ Sosinsky, Barrie A. Networking Bible.
Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing. Power Maxx Vibration Plate Manually. Retrieved 2016-03-26. • Bradley, Ray.. Retrieved 2016-03-26.
1 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014. • Peter Ashwood-Smith (24 February 2011). Retrieved 11 May 2012. • Jim Duffy (11 May 2012).. Retrieved 11 May 2012. Shortest Path Bridging will replace Spanning Tree in the Ethernet fabric.
Tech Power Up. Retrieved 11 May 2012. Fedyk, Ed.,; P. Ashwood-Smith, Ed.,; D. Unbehagen (April 2012).. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list () External links [ ] Wikimedia Commons has media related to. • Application of a tetrahedral structure to create a resilient partial-mesh 3-dimensional campus backbone data network.
Visit for Network topology in Hindi Urdu plus Ring topology in Hindi Urdu. This tutorial explains what is a ring topology in Hindi Urdu. This tutorial continues the introduction of what is a network typology in Hindi Urdu and introduce about Ring topology in Hindi Urdu.
This is the Computer Networking Tutorial 14 lecture. This tutorial is a part of 20 Computer Networking video tutorial lecture in Computer Networking in Hindi Urdu tutorial series. I explain what is a Ring topology in hindi urdu. Learn what is a RING topology in Hindi Urdu in the Computer Networking Urdu Hindi lectures tutorial series by ifacter.com.
Tutorial 14 introduces the viewers to networking and computer network Ring topology in Hindi Urdu. Networking in Urdu tutorials can be read at and downloaded in pdf. We have notes, pdf and list of books of Computer Networking and how does Internet work in Hindi and Urdu. This tutorial introduces to the fundamentals Ring topology in layman’s term ifactner.com and can be used for info for computer networking certifications and technology operations. Ifactner introduces diagram and image of basic computer networks and the Ring topology. This computer networking tutorial introduces the viewers to internal working of network topology, internet and the concept of ring topology.
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